米国多国籍企業と東アジアの"高度"工業化(経済摩擦と国際秩序-パックスアメリカーナと日・韓・中の地域経済圏-,総合研究)

元データ 1997-03-25 日本大学

概要

The new globalism of American capitalism in the post-Cold War period is characterized by its expansion in both scale and scope, toward major Third World countries in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and Africa, as well as Russia and China, in a bid to fill the vacuum left by the thaw in the military confrontation with the former Soviet Union. Now the only remaining superpower in both economic and military terms, the United States is steadily shifting the emphasis of its national strategy from the military to the economic domain, a process which requires the development of firm ties between New York and Russia, China and the major Third World countries. Given the level of importance that the United States attaches to economics, the question of how best to manage economic development in Asia (i.e., East Asia, China and South Asia, where so much of the world's material production is now concentrated) and how to incorporate Asia into the Wall Street network is of fundamental significance as the United States seeks to build a post-Cold War world order. The Middle East, being the world's oil-producing region, still represents a vital national interest for the United States. The US navy operates directly into the Persian Gulf, while US air force bases have been set up in Saudi Arabia. The national interests of the United States are also expanding into Russia and Kazakhstan, where oil fields are being developed with international petroleum capital from the United States and United Kingdom. United States firms in high-tech, cutting-edge industries are already establishing bases in Asia for the out-sourcing services so indispensable to their existence. During the Cold War, when South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and ASEAN (the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia) represented the front line of the anti-communist defense, the United States endeavored to present the region as a "showcase" of the free market (i.e., capitalist) economy. Through industrialization, the region has been developed into an out-sourcing center for parts and components in labor-intensive industries such as electric and electronic equipment, automobiles and aerospace equipment. Natural resources of oil, gas, coal and non-ferrous metals have also been developed in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and the surrounding seas. Meanwhile, the United States has been providing countries throughout Asia with both direct and indirect support for military development in order to create a Cold War structure predicated on the United States military presence as the overall integrating factor. The Japanese economy has benefited similarly from the industrialization of Asia (defined here as Newly Industrializing Economies (NIEs) such as South Korea and Taiwan as well as ASEAN and countries such as India and Pakistan) in line with the American Cold War design. Japanese firms have been able to alleviate trade friction with the United States by supplying the United States and Europe with household appliances and computer exports finished in South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia. After the Cold War, both Japan and the United States began to use the industrialized region of East Asia and South Asia as a strategic base to ensure survival in the era of great competition. Major international firms from Japan, the United States and Europe began establishing operations en masse in China, Vietnam and Myanmar. In a bid to incorporate the countries of East Asia more closely into the global market economy, the leading Wall Street investment banks are operating simultaneously as advisors on economic reform and financial sponsors in Beijing, Shanghai, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as well as Hong Kong, Singapore, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur. While international petrochemical capital and non-ferrous capital from the United States has been moving into Asia (including the area from the Tarim Basin region of China through to the Caribbean Sea oil fields), high-tech firms located in Silicon Valley as well as the east and west coasts and United States south have been setting up out-sourcing bases in Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. High-tech computer and electronic industries geared toward virtual manufacturing could not survive without their industrial bases in Taiwan (which now manufactures every notebook PC sold by United States companies) and the industrialized regions of East Asia. Indeed, the decision by the United States to deploy two aircraft carriers to the Taiwan Straits during the tension of Spring 1996 demonstrated the importance of protecting vital strategic interests in the region. In the era of great competition, the United States is working to build APEC, which binds together East Asia and countries ranged along the Pacific, into an out-sourcing base and marketplace for United States industries and the United States economy by building big business and high-tech industries.

著者

奥村 皓一 関東学院大学経済学部(前)
奥村 皓一 関東学院大学

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