戦後復興期の金融構造(2) : 復興金融の展開と問題点

元データ 文教大学

概要

 When the War ended in 1945, the Japanese Government and the Bank of Japan had to buckle down to the difficult tasks of reconstructing economic activities as well as stopping the postwar inflation. This paper aims to review the financial measures for economic reconstruction in Japan and to analyze the problems of these measures. The financial policies of te Government and the Bank had two conflicting purposes. The one was to suppress money supply in order to stop inflation and the other was to supply money to the key industries in order to reconstruct economic activities. Japanese policy-makers thought it was necessary, in that case, to depend on regulative means, not on the market mechanism. The regulative means included three types: the Bank's preferential treatments on the lending, the regulations on the lending of private financial institutions, and the lending activities of the Reconstruction Finance Bank established by the Government in 1947. Although the regulative means of the policies had various problems, we should appraise that they contributed greatly to the reconstruction of the Japanese economy. These regulations were abolished in the mid-1950s, when the Japanese economy had passed through her reconstructive process. However, the Government and the Bank retained their tendencies, afterwards, to depend on regulative means for a long time. This was the most important problem in the monetary field of the Japanese economy. 終戦という未曾有の事態を迎えて、日本の金融当局が直面した問題は、ひとつは戦後インフレーションをいかにして収束するかということであり、他のひとつは日本経済再建のために金融面からの支援策をどのように講じるかということであった。第一の戦後インフレーションの問題については、すでに拙稿を纏めているので、ここでは第二の復興金融の問題を取り上げる。

著者

鈴木 恒一 文教大学国際学部

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